General and Gastrointestinal Surgery

Gastro-Intestinal surgery

Gastrointestinal surgery is a treatment for diseases of the parts of the body involved in digestion. This includes the esophagus , stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum. It also includes the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.

Surgery may be used to remove a cancerous or noncancerous growth or damaged part of the body, such as the intestine. It may also be used to repair a problem like a hernia (a hole or weak spot in the wall of the abdomen). Minor surgical procedures are used to screen and diagnose problems of the digestive system.

Below are gastrointestinal conditions that may be treated with surgery:

A surgical procedure called an endoscopy is used to screen and diagnose problems of the digestive system. The doctor puts a long, thin tube with a tiny camera into the body to see inside. If the problem is with the stomach or esophagus, the doctor puts the scope through the esophagus. To check for colon cancer or other problems of the intestines, the doctor puts the scope through the anus into the intestine.

General surgery

General surgery is a surgical specialty that focuses on abdominal contents including esophagus, stomach, small bowel, colon, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, appendix and bile ducts, and often the thyroid gland (depending on local referral patterns). They also deal with diseases involving the skin, breast, soft tissue, trauma, peripheral vascular surgery and hernias.

Hydrocele

A hydrocele (HI-droe-seel) is a type of swelling in the scrotum that occurs when fluid collects in the thin sheath surrounding a testicle. Hydrocele is common in newborns and usually disappears without treatment by age 1. Older boys and adult men can develop a hydrocele due to inflammation or injury within the scrotum.
Treatment
In baby boys, a hydrocele sometimes disappears on its own. But for males of any age, it’s important for a doctor to evaluate a hydrocele because it can be associated with an underlying testicular condition.

A hydrocele that doesn’t disappear on its own might need to be surgically removed, typically as an outpatient procedure. The surgery to remove a hydrocele (hydrocelectomy) can be done under general or regional anesthesia. An incision is made in the scrotum or lower abdomen to remove the hydrocele. If a hydrocele is found during surgery to repair an inguinal hernia, the surgeon might remove the hydrocele even if it’s causing no discomfort.

After hydrocelectomy, you might need a tube to drain fluid and a bulky dressing for a few days. Your doctor is likely to recommend a follow-up exam because a hydrocele might recur.

Circumcision

Circumcision is the surgical removal of the skin covering the tip of the penis. The procedure is fairly common for newborn boys in certain parts of the world, including the United States.

Sometimes there’s a medical need for circumcision, such as when the foreskin is too tight to be pulled back (retracted) over the glans. In other cases, particularly in parts of Africa, circumcision is recommended for older boys or men to reduce the risk of certain sexually transmitted infections.

Circumcision requires when there is narrowing of foreskin of penis due to chronic infection. Infection of foreskin is called balanoposthitis is common amongs diabetic patients.

Thyroid surgery

The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped organ composed of two cone-like lobes or wings connected via the isthmus. The gland regulates metabolism by secreting hormones. When diseases affect the thyroid, its size or activity may become abnormal.
What is a Thyroidectomy?
A thyroidectomy is a surgical procedure to remove all or part of the thyroid gland and used to treat diseases of the thyroid gland including:
A thyroidectomy is traditionally a minimally invasive surgery performed through a small horizontal incision in the front of the neck. The entire thyroid gland may be removed or just a single lobe, a portion of a lobe and the isthmus or other structures. Depending on the extent of the operation, patients may need to take the drug levothyroxine, an oral synthetic thyroid hormone.

Sebaceous cyst

Sebaceous cysts are common noncancerous cysts of the skin. Cysts are abnormalities in the body that may contain liquid or semiliquid material.

Sebaceous cysts are mostly found on the face, neck, or torso. They grow slowly and aren’t life-threatening, but they may become uncomfortable if they go unchecked.

Doctors usually diagnose a cyst with only a physical examination and a medical history.
Treatment of a sebaceous cyst:

Your doctor can treat a cyst by surgically removing it. Normally, cysts are removed. This isn’t because they’re dangerous but rather for cosmetic reasons.

Since most cysts aren’t harmful to your health, your doctor will allow you to choose the treatment option that works for you.

Important to remember that without surgical removal, your cyst will usually come back. The best treatment is to ensure complete removal through surgery. Some people do decide against surgery, however, because it can cause scarring. Sometimes cyst get infected and pus formation can occur, in which condition sebaceous cyst needs to be removed.

Lipoma

A lipoma is a slow-growing, fatty lump that’s most often situated between your skin and the underlying muscle layer. A lipoma, which feels doughy and usually isn’t tender, moves readily with slight finger pressure. Lipomas are usually detected in middle age. Some people have more than one lipoma.

A lipoma isn’t cancer and usually is harmless. Treatment generally isn’t necessary, but if the lipoma bothers you, is painful or is growing, you may want to have it removed.

Symptoms

Lipomas can occur anywhere in the body. They are typically:
Treatment

No treatment is usually necessary for a lipoma. However, if the lipoma bothers you, is painful or is growing, your doctor might recommend that it be removed. Lipoma treatments include: